In the Netherlands, several convictions were pronounced in relation to right-wing terrorism. One defendant, for example, was convicted by a court of appeal for preparing to commit murder with terrorist intent, illegal possession of a weapon and ammunition, with the intent to commit a terrorist offence or of preparing or facilitating such an offence. He was associated with a Facebook profile of the group Anti-Terreur Brigade (ATB, ‘Anti-Terror Brigade’) that the court considered a right-wing extremist association, within which violence against Muslims was considered justified and people were trained to use violence. This group also discussed actions against left-wing extremists. According to the defendant, he was the administrator of the group’s Facebook page and partly responsible for the communication on the page. He also actively recruited new members for the group, based, among other things, on their willingness to efight against Muslimsf. The defendant also possessed a firearm, which he stated in a chat conversation was suitable for shooting left-wing protagonists. The court sentenced the defendant to three years’ imprisonment, partially suspended for 12 months, with a probation period of three years.
Hungarian right-wing extremist organisations often consist of a hard core of five to ten people and highly fluctuating membership. They maintain connections primarily in neighbouring countries, but also with like-minded groups in other EU Member States, including Germany, Italy, the Netherlands and the UK. In Hungary, right-wing extremist organisations focus on organising rallies and ‘marches’ to mark anniversaries of historical events. During such events, behaviour, symbols and chanting disparaging political, religious or ethnic minorities has been observed. For example, it has been reported that neo-Nazis from different parts of Europe gather each February in Budapest to mark what they call the ‘Day of Honour’. Music and concerts play a key role in providing coherence to and propagating neo-Nazi groups across Europe. The Oi! and ‘Rock against Communism’ (RAC) music genres are reported to be one of the main unifying elements. With their aggressiveness, they constitute one of the vectors of expression of neo-Nazi or skinhead groups and pose as an ‘underground’ culture. Right-wing extremist groups try to circumvent bans in one country by organising or attending meetings or concerts in other countries. In Belgium, for example, these concerts can bring together several dozens or even several hundred participants and also attract neo-Nazi audiences from abroad, including Germany, Hungary,the Netherlands, Sweden and the UK.