The case studies show that only few parties meet the criteria of the aristotelian definition of political extremism, in the German Federal Republic and the Netherlands at the turn of the century. Socio-economic and cultural extremism seem slightly more common. According to our definition, political extremists strive for a more purely aristocratic, monarchic or democratic regime. As democracy has been sanctified in two world wars, nowadays hardly any party dares to attack it openly.
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Bijzonderheden: Paper presented to the Workshop ‘Democracy and the New Extremist Challenge in Europe’ Joint Sessions of the ECPR Grenoble, 6 – 11 April 2001